Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private correspondence)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private correspondence)

(20) The phrase having ‘brother’, aha inside BT, keeps at exactly the same time come augmented, although this mode is even included in Turoyo. Hertevin possess one another ?aha and you can ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

Likewise, external NENA, we have most other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) You to alternatively mystical items which is attested in every NENA dialects but Sanandaj Religious (which probably just a spin pit from the facts) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that the phrase comes regarding options ql ‘to end up being crooked’. Most of the languages utilize the mode aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you will Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Some other term discussed by Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) is actually baxta ‘woman’ avviso incontri avventisti , which includes supplanted the Syriac atta in all NENA, although not inside Turoyo otherwise Mandaic. It word generally seems to be a consequence of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to remember one to an uneven plural survives from inside the numerous languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent innovation mentioned by Noldeke (1868, 59) are rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The change of h to x within one-word is actually found in every NENA dialects where in fact the verb are attested. Examples: Sanandaj Christian raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Some other unexpected development is the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes this new models zda?a great, zdaya, and zdala from the certain dialects. Macuch and you may Panoussi (1974, 50) render a prospective derivation from the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Models into infixed d are located in every the fresh new NENA dialects where in fact the means is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Only a few of one’s determining top features of NENA are found either in Turoyo or Mandaic

In my opinion the a lot more than causes it to be clear that the NENA languages display many unique traits which happen to be discovered neither in the last attested different Aramaic neither about most other life dialects. These characteristics variety across the domain names from phonology, morphology, and the lexicon.

Particularly, most of the dialects out of NENA agree into the requirements 2, nine, 14, fifteen, 16, 21, and you may twenty two. Most of the dialects where we have advice including acknowledge requirements 20, 23, and you will twenty four.

Just about Halabja concur during the standards 8 and you will 11. Criterion six is located in every dialects except Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Religious.

Even after the internal divisions, the new NENA languages form a strikingly defined category, separated certainly out-of one another Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The positioning of them languages away from NENA pale is out of question.

The levels that has was mutual around the NENA is particularly unbelievable once we check out the astounding differences when considering various languages. The latest determine away from almost every other languages into the NENA might have been each other deep and large, while the amount of shared intelligibility ranging from dialects can be quite quick. Many shared designs dispute firmly to have a familiar resource of brand new NENA dialects, either in an individual dialect or perhaps in a team of closely relevant dialects. At the same time, we are able to discern a handful of important packages out-of isoglosses which represent the new limitations regarding dialect groups.

a) New dialect regarding Halabja does not show specific important innovations which are observed because of most of the remaining portion of the dialects. It doesn’t form a great CCiC-le preterite of intransitive verbs (8), it offers zero b(it)- upcoming marker (10), and has zero 3rd individual only one copula which have 1 (11). This might be the most practical division ranging from languages from NENA. It indicates that the leftover dialects function a team by which designs bequeath when you find yourself Halabja stayed unchanged because of the him or her.

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